1966 NASA launched the AS-201 for the first time. It was the first unmanned test flight of an entire production Block I Apollo Command/Service Module and the Saturn IB launch vehicle. The suborbital flight was a partially successful demonstration of the service propulsion system and the reaction control systems of both modules, and successfully demonstrated the capability of the Command Module’s heat shield to survive re-entry from low Earth orbit.
1914 The HMHS Britannic was launched at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast. She was the third and largest Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line, and was intended to enter service as a transatlantic passenger liner. However, because of the First World War, she was laid up at her builders in Belfast for many months before being put to use as a hospital ship in 1915.
1909 A Kinemacolor motion picture was shown to the public for the first time, at the Palace Theater in London. Kinemacolor was the first successful color motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914. It was invented by George Albert Smith of Brighton, England in 1906.
1808 French printmaker, caricaturist, painter, and sculptor Honoré Daumier was born in Marseilles. During his career, he produced over 500 paintings, 4000 lithographs, 1000 wood engravings, 1000 drawings, and 100 sculptures. He was perhaps best known for his caricatures of political figures and satires on the behavior of his countrymen.
1799 French engineer and physicist Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron was born in Paris. He is considered to be one of the founders of the science of thermodynamics, the study of heat and its relation to other forms of energy and work. He also conducted extensive studies on the characterisation of perfect gases, the equilibrium of homogeneous solids, and calculations of the statics of continuous beams. His name is one of the 72 etched on the side of the Eiffel Tower, honoring French scientists, engineers and other notables.
1564 English dramatist and poet Christopher Marlowe was baptised in Canterbury. His exact date of birth is unknown, but it was likely a few days earlier. He was one of the foremost Elizabethan tragedians, along with his contemporary, William Shakespeare, and his plays were enormously successful, both commercially and artistically.
364 Valentinian I, also known as Valentinian The Great, became Emperor of Rome. During his reign, he fought successfully against several “barbarian” tribes, and was the last emperor to conduct campaigns across both the Rhine and Danube rivers. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered the “last great western emperor”.