1908 American physicist and electrical engineer John Bardeen was born in Madison, Wisconsin. He is the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.
1891 Swedish author Pär Lagerkvist was born in Växjö. He wrote poems, plays, novels, stories, and essays of considerable expressive power and influence from his early 20s to his late 70s. Among his central themes was the fundamental question of good and evil, which he examined using well-known biblical figures. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1951.
1848 German aviation pioneer Otto Lilienthal was born in Anklam, Pomerania Province, Prussia to a family of Swedish origins. He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful gliding flights.
1834 Danish painter Carl Heinrich Bloch was born in Copenhagen.
1795 English architect Charles Barry was born in Westminster. He is best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.
1729 Italian Enlightenment satirist and poet Giuseppe Parini was born in Bosisio. He is best remembered for a series of beautifully written Horatian odes and particularly for Il giorno, a satiric poem on the selfishness and superficiality of the Milanese aristocracy. Today, a statue dedicated to him occupies a place of honor in Milan’s Piazza Cordusio.
1707 Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist Carl Linnaeus was born in Råshult. He laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature, and is known as the father of modern taxonomy as well as one of the fathers of modern ecology. One of his major works as the book Systema Naturæ, published in 1735 (with several other editions being published later). It describes the “System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places”.