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July 12

1962 The Rolling Stones performed their first ever gig, at the Marquee Club in London. The original line-up was Mick Jagger, Keith Richards and Brian Jones on guitar, Ian Stewart on piano, Dick Taylor on bass and Tony Chapman on drums.

1854 American inventor and philanthropist George Eastman was born in Waterville, New York. He founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film, helping to bring photography to the mainstream.

1813 French physiologist Claude Bernard was born in the village of Saint-Julien near Villefranche-sur-Saône. He is known chiefly for his discoveries concerning the role of the pancreas in digestion, the glycogenic function of the liver, and the regulation of the blood supply by the vasomotor nerves. He was also one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations.

1580 The Ostrog Bible was first published in Ostroh, in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, by the Muscovy printer Ivan Fyodorov. It was one of the earliest East Slavic translations of the Bible and the first complete printed edition of the Bible in Old Church Slavonic.

927 A gathering of kings from throughout Britain took place at Eamont Bridge, a small village immediately to the south of Penrith, Cumbria. The event was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the histories of William of Malmesbury and John of Worcester. Present were Æthelstan (King of England, pictured below), Constantín mac Áeda (King of Scotland), Owain of Strathclyde, Hywel Dda (king of Deheubarth in south-west Wales), and Ealdred son of Eadulf. This is generally seen as the date of the foundation of the Kingdom of England.

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